The Presidential Elections in the USA 2012-2016. A comparative Study from a State and Individual Perspective

  • Reynaldo Yunuen Ortega Ortiz El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Internacionales (CEI)
  • Ma. Edith Pacheco Muñoz El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos, Urbanos y Ambientales (CEDUA)


In this article we posed several questions: What was the explanatory capacity of inequality and poverty at the state level in the United States presidential elections in 2012 and 2016?; what was the state balance in the presidential elections in the United States? By using the “American National Election Studies Survey”, We also investigated  the individual level to try to figure what variables could help us understand the vote in favor of the Republican presidential candidates in 2012 and 2016? Thus, to answer our questions, we conducted two analyzes, one at the state level and the other, based on individual voters, in order to explain the contrasting results of 2012 and 2016.


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How to Cite
Ortega Ortiz, R., & Pacheco Muñoz, M. E. (2021). The Presidential Elections in the USA 2012-2016. A comparative Study from a State and Individual Perspective. Norteamérica, Revista Académica Del CISAN-UNAM, 16(1).