Norteamérica, Revista Académica del CISAN-UNAM https://www.revistanorteamerica.unam.mx/index.php/nam <p dir="ltr">Norteamérica is a semiannual peer-reviewed journal regarding multi and interdisciplinary academic studies about the North America region (Mexico, United States and Canada) which consider the region itself as an object of study, along with its evolution, their individual processes and internal dynamics. An analysis of the reality of each of the three nations is thematically linked with the rest of the region.</p> Centro de Investigaciones sobre América del Norte - Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Méxic en-US Norteamérica, Revista Académica del CISAN-UNAM 1870-3550 <p><span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span><br /><br />Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</p> Cultural Industry and Urban Creativity in North America: A Comparative Evolution of Live Popular Music in Mexico City and Montreal https://www.revistanorteamerica.unam.mx/index.php/nam/article/view/538 <p>After sketching an overview of the North American live music industry in the digital age, this article discusses the link between urban creativity and the live music industry in two cities: Mexico City and Montreal. At an early stage, the two cities privileged a modernist and monumental vision of live music. Their local music scenes developed mainly in the wake of de-industrialization and of certain economic-political crises. In the case of Montreal, it became a real pillar of the conversion into a "creative city", while in Mexico City it remained mainly relegated to the underground, crushed by hegemonic actors and structural problems (corruption, drug trafficking, inequality), except in the initial context of digital social networks.</p> Michaël Spanu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-27 2022-05-27 18 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2023.1.538 The USMCA and the Third Generation of Labor Arrangements: From previous Experiences in Latin America to the Foreseeable Future for Mexican Industrial Relations. https://www.revistanorteamerica.unam.mx/index.php/nam/article/view/591 <p>In North America there is a new regulatory framework aimed at rethinking the terms of trade between Canada, Mexico and the United States, and affecting their labor relations. This study is aimed at evaluating the conditions under which the transition to a new labor model is taking place in Mexico, based on previous experience and six U.S. trade agreements with 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries. The evidence gathered shows that the changes produced so far are limited and focused on strategic transnational industries such as the automotive industry. It is therefore argued that a transformation of labor relations will only occur if and only if the legislative changes are supported and processed by the different stakeholders involved -i.e., a bottom-up orchestration that can be extended and supported by civil society.</p> Alex Covarrubias V. Mélanie Dufour-Poirier ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-28 2022-07-28 18 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2023.1.591 U.S. Biosecurity and the Emergence of Global Epidemiologic Surveillance: Analyzing the Genealogy of a Problem. https://www.revistanorteamerica.unam.mx/index.php/nam/article/view/566 <p>Far from being a "natural" evolution within epidemiology and public health, the development of global epidemiological surveillance systems adapted to identify unexpected biological threats respond, in fact, to technoscientific discourses that incorporate specific perspectives and political interests. The objective of this article seeks to demonstrate how US national security prerogatives had a crucial influence on the design of new technical practices of disease surveillance that were incorporated into the policies and regulations of the WHO in the mid-1990s. Through original documentary and archival research, the article demonstrates the influence of security concerns regarding the proliferation of biological weapons and potential bioterrorist attacks in the concept of "emerging infectious diseases" and, moreover, in the development of novel epidemiological surveillance systems. The article's conclusion suggests that, indeed, the American biosecurity discourse has had a decisive role in the development of contemporary epidemiological knowledge and practices. Arguing, additionally, that this discussion is useful in showing the limits of said innovations and reveals what and whom they aim to protect.</p> Alexis Bedolla ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 18 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2023.1.566 Reading/Writing Canada: a Facebook Wall about Canadian Literature https://www.revistanorteamerica.unam.mx/index.php/nam/article/view/606 <p>The CBC operates on a mandate that defines it as a company of content whose vision is to connect Canadians through attractive Canadian content and whose values include serving the Canadian public. This article responds to the questions of how the CBC uses social media to disseminate national literatures, taking a Facebook wall Canada Reads, as a case study, based on the small stories method (Georgakoupoulou) to analyze narrative activities that are important for recognizing the identity-forging work of their narrator as well as the social fabric of practices that people become involved in, with the objective of discovering if it has created a virtual community of practice (as conceived by Robert V. Kozinets) and if it has achieved, at the same time, the ultimate goal of discussing contemporary Canadian identities and if it has fulfilled its aim to disseminated contemporary regional and national quality content.</p> Graciela Martínez-Zalce ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 18 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2023.1.606 The Mexican Automotive Sector and the North American Region. Results and Prospects of the Policy of Greater Integration Negotiated in the T-MEC. https://www.revistanorteamerica.unam.mx/index.php/nam/article/view/508 <p>Almost two years after the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) has been in force, an analysis of the Mexican automotive sector is presented, as well as the conditions that characterize its integration with the North American region.In principle, a study of the basic elements that explain the evolution of the automotive sector installed in Mexico, whose antecedents go back almost a century of history, was carried out; Subsequently, the conditions that gave rise to the renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) are evaluated, a process that culminated in the signing of the USMCA.An explanation was incorporated on the provisions related to the determination of the regional origin of vehicles manufactured in North America, to conclude with the preparation of Results and Perspectives for the sector, one year after the USMCA is in force.</p> Rafael García Moreno Alejandro Rogelio Álvarez Béjar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-27 2022-05-27 18 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2023.1.508 Discourse Framing in U.S. 2020 Presidential Candidate Spots. https://www.revistanorteamerica.unam.mx/index.php/nam/article/view/561 <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>Specialists have analyzed televised political spots from quantitative perspectives, as a result has left a void in the analysis of the qualitative dimension of the image, ideology and emotions of political propaganda. The objective of this article is to contribute to the construction of this absent theoretical-methodological model and to carry out an analysis of the political image in general and the political spot in particular. To fulfill this purpose, the spots of the candidates in the 2020 presidential election in the United States of North America are analyzed. As a methodology, the audiovisual framing model is applied, which presents a three-dimensional structure formed by a visual frame, a verbal frame and a sound frame. Analytically, the construction of the image of political actors is approached by applying the concepts of frame and framing.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>visual frame, aural frame, verbal frame, audiovisual <em>framing</em>, campaign discourse.</p> Aquiles Chihu Amparán Alicia González Lira ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-08-03 2022-08-03 18 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2023.1.561 Determinants of Wage Levels in Mexico's Automotive Terminal Industry https://www.revistanorteamerica.unam.mx/index.php/nam/article/view/599 <p>This paper examines the factors of stage of establishment, region of destination, country of origin and union as determinants of the annual integrated wage of unionized workers through the analysis of the collective bargaining agreements of the year 2019 for 20 automotive assembly companies.&nbsp; Kruskal Wallis analysis and Dunn-Bonferroni tests are used to determine whether wage differences existed. The findings show that from the third stage of establishment wages decreased. The central and northern regions displayed high wages, but western and central-northern regions displayed low wages. In the case of companies of European origin, they displayed high wages, while Asian companies displayed low wages; in unions of FESEBS higher wages and FNSI low wages.</p> Karen Estefania Sánchez González ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-26 2022-09-26 18 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2023.1.599 Mexico: Remittances, Organized Crime and US Drug Overdose Crisis in Borderlands (2015-2021) https://www.revistanorteamerica.unam.mx/index.php/nam/article/view/602 <p>The present article aims at shedding some light to the question whether Mexico´s boom in remittances between 2015 and 2021 was the result of low rates of unemployment in the USA or of higher revenues of drug trafficking made by Mexican Criminal Groups. We found that Mexican migration to the USA took off up 2019 and accelerated with Covid-19 pandemic. Since higher rates of unemployment matched with larger number of remittances and a spike in drug overdose deaths in the USA, a hypothesis aroused stating that Mexican remittances could be related to drug trafficking revenues. An Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) found a normal negative correlation (not causation) between US-unemployment rate and remittances from 2015 to 2019 but an abnormal negative correlation from 2020 to 2021. We conclude that the record level in Mexican remittances between 2020 and 2021 could be the result of an increase in Mexican migration but also from a windfall in drug trafficking earnings mirrored in a spike of drug overdose deaths in the USA.</p> Gerardo Reyes Guzmán Marco Antonio Escobar Acevedo Perla Esperanza Rostro Hernández ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 18 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2023.1.602