Norteamérica, Revista Académica del CISAN-UNAM <p dir="ltr">Norteamérica is a semiannual peer-reviewed journal regarding multi and interdisciplinary academic studies about the North America region (Mexico, United States and Canada) which consider the region itself as an object of study, along with its evolution, their individual processes and internal dynamics. An analysis of the reality of each of the three nations is thematically linked with the rest of the region.</p> Centro de Investigaciones sobre América del Norte - Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Méxic en-US Norteamérica, Revista Académica del CISAN-UNAM 1870-3550 <p><span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span><br /><br />Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</p> The Origin of Emission Markets. The Commodification of Environmental Regulation for Air Pollutants in the United States <p>This article describes the birth of the regulation of atmospheric pollutants, as well as its transformation, which transitioned from being under state control to a regime based on market instruments.It also shows the gradual commodification of the approach to air pollution problems, whose origins lie in the United States and which was condensed into three historical moments: the formation of the Emission Trading Program (1982), the Average between refineries program (1985) and the Acid Rain Program (1995). These experiments, within the command and control environmental regulation regime, led to the formation of the first pollutant atmospheric emissions market in world history and paved the way for a new environmental regulation regime known as cap and trade.</p> Ricardo Vega Ruiz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 16 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2021.2.473 Guidelines of the Restructuration of the Global Automotive Industry and its Implications for Mexico <p>The automotive industry (AI) is a system that adopts broad sets of technologies coupled with a business model based on private mobility. This articles explores the guidelines for its restructuration in order to locate the role and position of the mexican industry in the global manufacturing and consumption network, taking as a context the sociotechnical transition towards the interactive mobility paradigm; It is concluded that the strategy focused on attracting strong flows of foreign direct investment (FDI) undermined national productive capacities. This result puts the country in a disadvantageous situation, in a context where the advantage focused on low wages is diluted,as well as in the face of the need to consolidate knowledge capacities required to implement the digitization and automation of emerging processes in the sector.</p> Gilberto González Pérez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 16 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2021.2.442 U.S. Multinational Companies: Effects on Global Poverty <p>The objective of this article is to determine the effect of U.S Multinational Companies (US-MNC) in reducing poverty in a group of 45 high- and upper-middle-income countries where they have operated for the period 2009-2018. The determining factors of the attraction of US-MNC to these countries are also estimated and it is verified whether they affect poverty. A dynamic panel data econometric methodology (sys-GMM) is used. For the analysis, the total sample and sub-samples of countries are considered based on their commercial status with the United States. It is found that US-MNC positively influence poverty reduction and that the significant determinants of their attraction are at the same time poverty reducing factors. Consequently, the EU-MNCs can be considered as a central mechanism of the global dynamics of poverty.</p> Omar Neme Castillo Cesaire Chiatchoua José Israel Briseño Perezyera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-26 2021-08-26 16 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2021.2.475 Bayesian Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Remittances and Financial Inclusion in Municipalities of Mexico <p>The continued growth in the amount of remittances sent by Mexican migrants from the United States reveals the importance of their study. The objective is to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of remittances as well as to quantify the effect of financial inclusion on their distribution across all municipalities in Mexico for the period 2015-2020. The methodology is based on the implementation of a series of competing latent Gaussian models. The results indicate that there is a significant relationship between financial inclusion and the levels of spatio-temporal dispersion of remittances.</p> Gerardo Núñez Medina Jorge Alberto López Arevalo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 16 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2021.2.476 The Institutionalization of Political Science in Canada. A Brief Comparative Overview from Mexico <p>Based on a review of the metadisciplinary literature, a historical exploration and description of some contextual factors and the influence of the American tradition in shaping the contemporary profile of political science in Canada is carried out, from the point of view of tradition. and history of Mexican political science, which is considered to have had a development process with some parallel aspects, particularly with regard to the influence of the American tradition on its disciplinary profile.</p> J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-06 2021-09-06 16 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2021.2.353 Justin Trudeau in the Face of the Challenges of Populism in North America <p>Politicians who appeal to the wisdom of the people and assume to be their defenders are not casual figures neither in time nor in the forms they take in the 21st century. Their rise has been brewing for decades in such a way that the conditions of exclusion and/or lack of opportunities for broad sectors of society have found in populist practices powerful and influential leaderships in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. In such a scenario the Prime Minister of the Liberal Party; Justin Trudeau, and his team have used skillful strategies that have showed to be successful in minimizing the effects of these populist expressions, for which conflict and controversy constitute one of their main political assets with their bases. In this articlewe will revise the main protagonists of populism in North America, its characteristics, and the position of the Trudeau government against them.</p> Oliver Santín Peña ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 16 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2021.2.495 Breakable Lives in the Vortex of Precarization: Policies of Expulsion, Exclusion and Street Life in the Border City of Tijuana, Mexico <p>This paper analyzes the process of precarization of people with a deportation background and who are currently inhabitants of the border city of Tijuana. This work is framed in an analysis model known as the precarization vortex, which allows for investigating the way in which the lives of these people have been increasingly degraded,&nbsp; by taking into account procedural, relational, practical and subjective factors. This papers also delves into the historical-procedural dimension of such analysis model, wherein the policies of expulsion and exclusion are analyzed, and also a multifactorial perspective is deployed to understand the various historical-social elements that were combined so that a particular group of people came to inhabit the streets of this border city.</p> Juan Antonio Del Monte Madrigal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 16 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2021.2.433 The Origin of Crony Capitalism in Modern Mexico and its Current Impact on Foreign Direct Investment <p class="CuerpoA">This paper analyses to what extent crony capitalism (CC) affects international business activities. By using the case of Canadian companies investing in mining in Mexico, I explain in which ways CC impacts foreign direct investment. My argument is that CC does not imply negative consequences for international business activities if other variables are controlled at the domestic level. CC could even generate positive incentives to foreign investors, deepening corruption problems internally. This type of corruption does not elevate the risk perceived by foreign investors if the process of doing business in Mexico is under the control of domestic power groups.</p> José Galindo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 16 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2021.2.467 Aspects of Change and Reversal in US policy toward Iran during the Presidencies of Barack H. Obama and Donald J. Trump <p>Based on the theoretical efforts on the study of foreign policy change, particularly those focused on decision-making and restructuring approaches, this paper argues that the strategic modification of US policy toward Iran arose during the Barack H.Obama Presidency on the basis of the failure of the previous course of action and the threat posed by the Iranian nuclear program, although this new policy would be restricted by challenges on three axes throughout the process that prevented it to achieve an approach that resolved some issues on the agenda, especially the nuclear issue. Such a situation explains the reversal of Obama’s progress during the Trump administration, which was in the opposite direction in some aspects of Obama's policy. The theoretical contribution of this article consists in extending the analysis beyond the phase in which the change is decided to clarify its limits and possibilities of consolidation, based on the tracking of interactions between promoting actors, the recipient subject and those who resist. This approach is useful when considering the notion of promoting change and resistance, which is relevant to illustrate the challenge Joe R. Biden will face in driving policy toward Iran.</p> Jorge Alberto Ortíz Almanza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-12 2021-08-12 16 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2021.2.487 The Rebranded NAFTA: Will the USMCA Achieve the Goals of the Trump Administration for North American Trade? <p>The United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (usmca) was the product of a renegotiation of the former North American Free Trade Agreement (nafta) that was intended by the Trump administration to “put America first.” This article analyzes the most important new provisions in the usmca that that administration believed would inhibit foreign investment in Mexico and reverse the offshoring of U.S. jobs. Some of the new provisions represent improvements over nafta, especially the limitations on investor-state dispute settlement and strengthened protections for labor rights. However, the new requirements for automobile production are likely &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;to backfire by making North American automotive production more expensive and less competitive. On the whole, the formation of the usmca probably enhanced, rather than lessened, the confidence of foreign investors in the Mexican economy. However, the agreement is unlikely to bring about large gains in U.S. manufacturing employment or to boost the long-run growth of the Mexican economy.</p> Robert A. Blecker ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2021.2.516 From NAFTA to USMCA: Can a Good Idea that Came Too Late Be Born Again? <p>This article analyzes from the trade perspective the lower-than-expected growth dividends of the export-led strategy adopted by Mexico in the 1990s. Particular attention is given to employment, labor productivity, and regional outcomes. The North American Free Trade Agreement (nafta) caused Mexican exports to skyrocket in the first years of its implementation. This initial lift was quickly sapped by China’s emergence after its entry into the World Trade Organization (wto) in 2001. Recent years witnessed a renewed dynamism of Mexican presence in the U.S. market. In an international context marked by deglobalization and decoupling, this rebound is expected to continue under the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (usmca). Yet, in order to deliver economic growth, Mexico needs to diversify the geographical location of its exporting industries. The analysis of Mexican exports shows also that idiosyncratic weaknesses, such as the low contribution of the business services sector or the deficient trade and transport infrastructure, must be addressed.</p> Hubert Scaith ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-02 2021-12-02 16 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2021.2.517 Perspectives of US-Mexico Trade under the USMCA <p>The USMCA will impose a restructuring of the North American supply chains to meet the new input content requirements. To evaluate the determinants of the US-Mexico trade under the new agreement, an econometric model is estimated. The estimations indicate that the distance from the US states to the Mexican border and the size of the economies of the states of Mexico are factors that impact trade between the two countries. Tariffs applied under the USMCA have had a minor but positive impact. Foreign direct investment showed positive effects on trade, indicating the existence of value chains between the US and Mexico. The results suggest that polices to encourage trade between the two countries would require the development of transportation infrastructure, as well as the promotion of investment in strategic sectors to further develop regional supply chains.</p> Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-05 2021-08-05 16 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2021.2.478 Impact of the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) Rules of Origin on the Automotive Sector in Mexico <p>The article aims to analyze the changes in the free trade agreement of the United States, Mexico, and Canada (USMCA) for the automotive industry, explaining the origin and impact on light vehicle production in Mexico. The new rules affect the drivers of location decisions for companies and positively influence the growth rate of the automotive industry in the region, but unevenly for the countries and companies involved. The regional content value of each automobile assembled in Mexico and sold in the United States in 2020 is analyzed to understand the dynamics of competition and protectionism. There is a strategy to increase automotive manufacturing in the region, especially in the United States. The agreement promotes import substitution, increasing the regionalization of the supply chain. German and Asian carmakers producing in Mexico will need more adjustments.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Automotive Industry, USMCA, industry relocation, rules of origin, protectionism.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> María de Lourdes Álvarez Medina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 16 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2021.2.489