Norteamérica, Revista Académica del CISAN-UNAM <p dir="ltr">Norteamérica is a semiannual peer-reviewed journal regarding multi and interdisciplinary academic studies about the North America region (Mexico, United States and Canada) which consider the region itself as an object of study, along with its evolution, their individual processes and internal dynamics. An analysis of the reality of each of the three nations is thematically linked with the rest of the region.</p> Centro de Investigaciones sobre América del Norte - Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Méxic en-US Norteamérica, Revista Académica del CISAN-UNAM 1870-3550 <p><span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span><br /><br />Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</p> NAAEC and its institutions as catalysts of environmental governance in Mexico: From NAFTA to USMCA <p class="AOPmetresumenabstract">The renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) culminated with the signing of a new trade agreement, the Treaty between Mexico, the United States and Canada (USMCA) as well as a series of symbolic modifications to the environmental issue. For none of the three member states the issue of environmental protection represented a priority throughout the negotiation rounds. This has been the matter of &nbsp;several analysis and criticisms by environmental groups, which argue that a 21st century trade agreement should not evade the environmental and climatic crisis. This text presents a summary of the content of the North American Environmental Cooperation Agreement (NAAEC), still in force, and analyzes the changes that have occured in environmental issues since the signing of the USMCA and the Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (ECA). Chapter 24 of theUSMCA devoted to the environment and the new ECA represent both a setback and a paralysis of the evolution of environmental regulation in the region.</p> Ruth Zavala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-14 2020-01-14 15 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.1.391 Women from the establishment versus the “squad”: feminine political representation styles in the U.S Congress <p class="AOPmetresumenabstract">In 2019 an historical record number of women shaped the US Congress. In addition to the increase in female participation, there is also a wider ethnic, racial, cultural and class diversity among these congress members. In this political universe, two highly contrasting profiles stand out: on the one hand, the women of the establishment led by Nancy Pelosi; on the other, the challenging "squad" headed by Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez. Based on an analysis of social networks, press coverage, and legislative performance, in this investigation both styles of political representation are contrasted. The main result of this research is that in relation to the patterns of proposing laws, voting and fundraising there are no differences between the squad and the women of the establishment. The main divergences reside in their public discourse, in the ideological platform to which they ascribe and in the style of leadership they exercise.</p> Estefanía Cruz Lera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 15 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.1.389 Migration and Socioeconomic Changes in Rural Contexts. <p>Within the context of the cross-border internationally mobility Mexico United States (EU) at the turn of the century, this article, through a local qualitative methodological approach (based on ethnographic work and semi-structured interviews), argues that undocumented chiapaneca migration to the US was carried out through social and family networks with the goal to solve various needs, and generated several impacts in the localities of origin among migrant families. One of the contributions of this work is to show that migration produces changes (economic, social and family) at the local and household level, generating restructuration of varying intensity in certain areas of the social order in the localities of origin. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Guillermo Castillo Ramírez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-24 2020-03-24 15 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.1.392 Trump’s US-Mexico Border Agenda: An Agenda-Building Examination of Candidate-Generated Messages <p class="AOPmetresumenabstract">On June 16, 2015, Donald J. Trump announced his candidacy for president of the United States, stating that he would build a wall on the southern border and Mexico would pay for it. From that moment on, the U.S.-Mexico border region became the news epicenter in the nation throughout the 2016 presidential campaign. This article examines Trump’s candidate-generated messages in relation to the border as part of his political communication strategy. The authors perform a content analysis of his political ads and his Twitter posts along with a textual analysis of his official website and his first 100 day contract. The Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient was then used to assess the degree of interdependence of issue positions for each issue. Outcomes showed that Trump presented 16 issues, six related to the border (the economy, foreign policy, immigration, regulations, taxes, and trade). Results found 28 issue positions relating to the border, with the highest number of solutions offered via Trump’s Twitter agenda and his 100 day agenda. The strongest degree of interdependence between agendas was observed on immigration between Trump’s TV-ad agenda and his 100 day agenda (rho = +0.545), and on the economy between Trump’s TV-ad agenda and his Twitter agenda (rho = +0.538). In both instances, the messages transmitted to voters on those political communication venues were very similar to each other.</p> María de los Ángeles Flores Manuel Chavez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-30 2020-01-30 15 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.1.414 Volume, intensity and intra-industrial proportion of bilateral trade between Mexico and the United States 1981-2017 <p class="AOPmetresumenabstract">The aim of this paper is to characterize the bilateral trade between Mexico and the United States during the period 1981-2017, highlighting the effects of Mexico's accession to the GATT and the entry into force of NAFTA, as well as the entry of China into the WTO. Although there have been decelerations at some point, results show an increase in trade volume and, consequently, in the intensity of bilateral trade, but in the latter case with some falls resulting from the different growth rates of world trade. Intra-industrial trade, meanwhile, recorded sustained growth, which could reflect a greater vertical integration of production processes.</p><p class="AOPmetresumenabstract"> </p><p class="AOPmetresumenabstract"><strong>Keywords:</strong> trade volume, trade intensity, intra-industrial trade, Grubel and Lloyd index added and corrected, economic integration.</p> Dulce Albarrán Macías ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-05 2020-03-05 15 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.1.416 The seawater desalination plant in Rosarito beach. A strategic project against dependency on the Colorado River and water scarcity in Baja California <p>Faced with a water shortage affecting the coastal cities of Baja California, state and federal authorities opted for the construction of a seawater desalination plant in Rosarito, leaving open the possibility of exporting part of the production to San Diego. The project was approved in 2017 amid criticisms and is currently halted for lack of consensus on the terms of granting explotation rights to a private company. The objective of this article is to show the regional and binational importance of the project, highlighting the technocratic nature with which it was conceived and managed. Through an analysis of the authorization process and a review of the literature on the global trends of desalination in the face of water scarcity. It is concluded that the project has been hold for a long time and that there is a great interest for itboth in Mexico and the United States, which confers it a greater weight and probability of realization in the absence of other proposals on the Mexican side.</p> Vicente Sánchez Munguía ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-26 2020-03-26 15 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.1.394 American students in Mexican schools: gaps and challenges for inclusion. Ethnographic contributions from Oaxaca, Mexico <p>This paper analyzes the school insertion of American born minors of Mexican origin in the state of Oaxaca. This is one of the Mexican states which is most affected by the return of Mexican migrants due to the tightening of the Trump administration's immigration policy. The results presented in this study have been obtained through a qualitative methodology in which the techniques of participant and non-participant observation, interviews, discussion groups and documentary analysis have been used. The target population is made up of American students between twelve and seventeen years old, enrolled in middle schools and in higher secondary schools. The findings show the presence of different elements of exclusion -such as the absence of diagnostic tests and programs for teaching Spanish and for leveling study content learning. The above causes that these children go through differentiated school trajectories due to their immigration status, which causes social and educational exclusion, and has important consequences for their present and future life.</p> Marta Rodríguez-Cruz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 15 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.1.390 Teaching intersectionality: Reception of a movie at a workers' center <p>This article aims to study the educational task of workers' centers in the United States. The reception perspective, developed in the field of cultural studies, and the theory of collective action frameworks are both used. The intersectional framework of a New York City workers' center is investigated, analyzing the discourse of debates that take place in its natural context during an ethnographic investigation. The diagnostic, prognostic and motivational elements of the collective action framework are identified. It is observed that class relations and inter-ethnic relations are strongly overlapping, and that the workers' center intends to articulate solidarity and alliances to defend the rights of Latin American workers.</p> Beltran Roca Martinez Pilar Pinto Buzon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-06 2020-04-06 15 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.1.398 The Impact of social Policies towards Children in vulnerable Situations in the City of Salta, Argentina <p>Considering that institutions serve as a framework for the interactions that take place between the various social actors among which the State plays a central role but without being an exclusive actor within the social fabric, this research has the primary objective of analyzing the educational impact of social programs for boys and girls in the Solidaridad and Castañares neighborhoods of the City of Salta. The adopted theoretical approach develops from the notion of Social Institutionality, since it is understood that social programs and the actions that emerge from them are contextualized in a social framework or in networks that, when institutionalized by facilitating collective actions, bring about the formation of social capital. It is based on the assumption that maintains that social programs for children have different results in educational matters, depending on to the contexts and areas addressed, and asses this point both qualitative and quantitative methodology will be used.</p> Víctor F. Toledo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 15 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.1.422 La mediación en el régimen de subjetividad Bio/Necropolítica: de la minería de datos al consumo comercial de lo violento Ruth Dávila Figueroa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 15 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.1.411 Outlook of Cultural Diplomacy in Canada: models and results. <p class="subtituloresumen">Comparative study of the objectives, resources and design of the cultural diplomacy carried out by seven countries in Canada, identifying parameters to measure its effectiveness, in order to draw good practices and lessons learned to strengthen Mexico’s action in countries that are strategic to its foreign policy.</p> <p class="subtituloresumen">&nbsp;</p> <p class="subtituloresumen">&nbsp;</p> <p class="subtituloresumen">&nbsp;</p> María Cristina Oropeza Zorrilla Soileh Padilla Mayer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-17 2020-04-17 15 1 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.1.396