Norteamérica, Revista Académica del CISAN-UNAM <p dir="ltr">Norteamérica is a semiannual peer-reviewed journal regarding multi and interdisciplinary academic studies about the North America region (Mexico, United States and Canada) which consider the region itself as an object of study, along with its evolution, their individual processes and internal dynamics. An analysis of the reality of each of the three nations is thematically linked with the rest of the region.</p> Centro de Investigaciones sobre América del Norte - Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Méxic en-US Norteamérica, Revista Académica del CISAN-UNAM 1870-3550 <p><span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span><br /><br />Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</p> Energy security in Mexico, the United States and Canada from 1980 to 2016: The centrality of oil and the incorporation of environmental issues <p class="AOPmetresumenabstract"><span lang="X-NONE">The OPEC oil embargo of October 1973 gave rise to the concept of Energy Security (ES), focused on guaranteeing the economic supply of fuels. It gradually included environmental, governance and equity issues and the complexity of the concept, policies and measurement methods increased. With a focus on political economy, this essay examines this trajectory, and selects variables to construct three related and independent ES indexes: Petroleum Security (PSI), Energy Diversity (EDI) and Energy Transition (ETI) and applies them for the period 1980 -2016, to Canada, the United States and Mexico, countries with historical social and economic ties, including energy. The results indicate the centrality of oil in the SE and the benefits of building independent indexes for each considered country and context.</span></p> Isabel Rodríguez Peña Alicia Puyana Mutis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-06 2020-07-06 15 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.2.401 Tied to the dream of being adopted by a Country that is not yours: A Definition of Dreamer from the Perspective of young Migrants. <p>This document discusses who the Dreamers are from the perspective of the young migrants settled in Mexico and the United States. The work is based on a survey distributed through Surveyymonkey among young migrants installed in Mexico and members of 8 Dreamers groups and DACA recipients on Facebook in the United States between May and August 2018. From the analysis of the answers, we derive three hypotheses: first, contrary to expectations, young people do not assume themselves heterogeneously as Dreamers, nor do they grant the same content to the concept; Second, this concept contains a sense of belonging to the United States regardless of the place of residence of young people, so it seems to join the technical belonging to Mexico with the sense of belonging that derives from socialization in the United States. The third is that youngsters accept or reject the Dreamer concept because of the reference points and mental maps beyond the legal definitions set by the DREAMAct or DACA including both countries in their communities of belonging.</p> Ana Vila Freyer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 15 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.2.435 The Symbolic Dispute to Classify a New Cultural Product: The Case of Netflix during thePremiere and Award of the Film Roma <p>Researchers have emphazised how cultural industries compete with each other for the scarce attention consumers spend on cultural products. Analyzing the controversies that emerged during the premiere and Academy awards of the movie Roma, produced by Netflix, this paper aims to show some of the logics by which a new cultural product is symbollicaly defined. We argue that the symbolican definition of a cultural product is at the core of the economic dispute in the cultural industries. These symbolic disputes become a central issue in a historical context in which techonological innovations are fostering the emergence of new players across the cultural industries.</p> Santiago Battezzati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 15 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.2.410 Documenting the Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program: A Filmed Interpretation <p>This article uses a qualitative content analysis to examine the documentary <em>El Contrato</em> (2003), directed by Korean-Canadian documentary filmmaker Min Sook Lee and produced by the National Film Board, from two complementary standpoints: first, the critical portrait it paints of the Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP), a partnership of governments and agro-industrial firms, its social consequences, and the integration problems it presents; and second, the importance of documentary cinema in making visible and analyzing the conditions of temporary workers in Canada. The author concludes that this documentary’s activist strategy contributes to making integration easier.</p> Graciela Martínez-Zalce ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 15 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.2.443 Trade opportunities within MIKTA: A Macroeconomic comparative analysis between Mexico, Indonesia and Turkey (2000-2019) <p>This paper aims at exploring trade opportunities between Mexico, Indonesia, and Turkey, presently members of MIKTA, by comparing their respective Macroeconomic and socio-economic variables. We use the GDP per capita as a key indicator of productivity and market size to see which MIKTA members are similar and therefore have a potential to set trade and business projects among them. To do that we conducted an ANOVA test and skiped Australia and South Korea of the analysis due to their high income per capita. We then focused on Mexico, Indonesia, and Turkey, whose economies proved to be equivalent and compared their key macroeconomic and social indicators, outstanding their most competitive sectors, commodities, foreign trade, and trade partners. A total of 87 observations were rated from one to three to identify which country was better. Mexico scored 205 points followed by Indonesia with 164 and Turkey, 153 points. Finally, we ran a second ANOVA test, taking the value of all observations in a logarithmic scale to prove that in spite of the different scores, the mean of the three countries was equal. The results are relevant as the three of them present a wide business scope to be exploited, which could allow them to lead the MIKTA in the coming decades.</p> Gerardo Reyes Guzmán Marco Antonio Escobar Acevedo Perla Esperanza Rostro Hernández Damaris León Pérez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 15 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.2.431 Changes and continuities in immigration policy during the first year of the López Obrador Governement <p>The Andrés Manuel López Obrador administration has had to manage migration in transit through Mexican territory - including migrant caravans - facing the demands of the Donald Trump government that Mexico prevent migrants from reaching US territory. The objective of this work is to analyze the changes and continuities in immigration policy during the first year of López Obrador through a documentary review and analysis of the data from administrative records. In addition, two key aspects of this policy are reviewed: the containment of migration and the protection of migrants.</p> Luis Enrique Calva Sánchez Eduardo Torre Cantalapiedra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 15 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.2.415 The 2020 General Elections and the Democratic Balance in The United States of America <p>The elections of Donald Trump, both as a presidential candidate of the Republican Party first and as president of the United States of America later, evidenced the ideological and operational crisis prevailing in the two main American political parties; furthermore, the resulting Trump administration has openly challenged some of the demo-liberal foundations of the American political system. This essay analyzes distinctive instances of the challenge that the election and presidency of Donald Trump has posed to the fundamental but delicate balances of power in the American political system, as well as its implications for the 2020 general elections. Special emphasis is placed on the sui generis/reversed form of Donald Trump's populism.</p> Amando Basurto Salazar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-14 2020-08-14 15 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.2.440 Latino vote and its electoral influence in the United States <p>This article analyzes the importance of the Latino vote in the 2020 presidential elections in the United States, considering the growth of this population in the last twenty years and its composition by national groups. The demographic growth of this group as a result of migratory flows is well documented, in contrast to their tendency to obtain citizenship of the United States, which affects their electoral weight. Finally, its geographic location is described to reflect the electoral weight of this community in the "battle states" or "swing states", where the biggest competition occurs for the definition of the Electoral College.</p> Daniel Tacher Contreras ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 15 2 10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.2.441