American students in Mexican schools: gaps and challenges for inclusion. Ethnographic contributions from Oaxaca, Mexico

  • Marta Rodríguez-Cruz Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas de la UNAM

Abstract

This paper analyzes the school insertion of American born minors of Mexican origin in the state of Oaxaca. This is one of the Mexican states which is most affected by the return of Mexican migrants due to the tightening of the Trump administration's immigration policy. The results presented in this study have been obtained through a qualitative methodology in which the techniques of participant and non-participant observation, interviews, discussion groups and documentary analysis have been used. The target population is made up of American students between twelve and seventeen years old, enrolled in middle schools and in higher secondary schools. The findings show the presence of different elements of exclusion -such as the absence of diagnostic tests and programs for teaching Spanish and for leveling study content learning. The above causes that these children go through differentiated school trajectories due to their immigration status, which causes social and educational exclusion, and has important consequences for their present and future life.

References

AGUILAR, RUBÉN

Enero de 2017. “The Obama and Trump deportees”. Polítical Animal. Available at https://bit.ly/2zbGuZ0, accessed February 28, 2019.

BANKS, JAMES A.

“The canonical debate, the construction of knowledge and multicultural education”, in Kikiriki, N° 41, pp. 4-16.

BRASLAVSKY, CECILIA

The educational discrimination in Argentina, Miño y Dávila, Buenos Aires.

BUSTOS, RAÚL

“Strategies of academic adaptation in immigrant students of establishments of Basic and Media Education in the city of Arica”. PhD diss., Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. In https://bit.ly/2kFYyas

CASTILLO, DANTE, EDUARDO SANTA-CRUZ AND ALEJANDRO VEGA

“Migrant students in Chilean public schools”, en Quality in Education, N° 49, pp. 18-49.

COLECTIVO IOÉ

Immigration, school and labor market. An updated radiography. La Caixa Foundation, Barcelona.

Immigrants, workers, citizens. A vision of migrations from Spain. University of Valencia, Valencia.

COOK, VIVIAN

“Evidence for multi-competence” in Language Learning, Vol. 42 N° 4, pp. 557-591.

DÍEZ, ENRIQUE

“Interculturality, coexistence and conflict”, in Tabanque, N° 18, pp. 49-76.

DURAND, JORGE

“Theoretical essay on return migration on the principle of diminishing return”, in Geographical Notebooks, N° 35, pp. 103-116.

ESSOMBA, MIGUEL ÁNGEL

10 key: The management of cultural diversity at school. Graó, Barcelona.

ESTEBAN-GUITART, MOISÉS, AND XÉNIA SAUBICH

“Educational practice from the perspective of identity knowledge funds”, in Theory of Education, N° 25, Vol. 2, pp. 189:211.

GAIRÍN, JOAQUÍN, DAVID RODRÍGUEZ-GÓMEZ AND DIEGO CASTRO (EDS.).

Access and academic success of vulnerable groups in risk environments in Latin America, Wolters Kluwer, Madrid.

GANDINI, LUCIANA, FERNANDO LOZANO-ASCENCIO AND SELENE GASPAR.

The return. The new scenario of migration between Mexico and the United States, CONAPO, México D.F.

GARRETA, JORDI

“The attention to cultural diversity in Catalonia: Exclusion, segregation and interculturality”, in Journal of Education, N° 355, pp. 213-233.

GENTILI, PABLO AND CHICO ALENCAR

Educate in hope in times of disappointment, Voces, Petrópolis.

GENTILI, PABLO

“Marches and countermarches. The right to education and the dynamics of inclusive exclusion in Latin America”, in Iberoamerican Journal of Education, N° 49, pp. 19-57.

Disenchantment and utopia. Education in the labyrinth of the new times, Homo Sapiens, Rosario.

GIMÉNEZ, CARLOS AND GRACIELA MALGESINI

Concepts guide on migrations, racism and interculturality, Catarata, Madrid.

HAMMERSLEY, MARTYN AND PAUL ATKINSON

Ethnography. Research Methods, Paidós, Barcelona.

HECHT, CAROLINA ET AL.

“Interculturality and education in Argentina. Discussions around a polysemic concept”, in Education, indigenous people and migrants. Reflections from Mexico, Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina and Spain, Garbiela Novaro, Ana Padawer and Carolina Hecht, eds., Biblos, Buenos Aires, pp. 49-64.

NATIONAL MIGRATION INSTITUTE (INM)

“Events of repatriation of Mexicans from the United States, according to the State of origin and sex, 2018”. Available at https://bit.ly/1MIM8jY Accessed July 23, 2019

NATIONAL MIGRATION INSTITUTE (INM).

“Events of repatriation of Mexicans from the United States, according to the State of origin and sex, 2017”. Available at https://bit.ly/2Men4LF Accessed July 23, 2019

JACOBO, MÓNICA AND NUTY CÁRDENAS

Returnees: How to respond to the diversity of Mexican migrants returning from the United States. Migration Policy Documents. México City: CIDE.

JACOBO, MÓNICA

“Roundtrip: The impact of US immigration policy in Mexico and its population returned”, in Regional Economic Charte, vol. 6, N° 114, pp. 66-91.

JIMÉNEZ, FELIPE

“Educational discourses and practices in the multicultural school: an ethnographic approach to the schooling of migrant students and minority cultures”. PhD diss., Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Available at https://bit.ly/2lVxqEN

MOLL, LUIS. C.

“Vygotsky, education and culture in action”, in Towards a cultural curriculum. The validity of Vygotsky in education, Amelia Álvarez y Pablo del Río eds., Childhood and Learning Foundation, Madrid, pp. 39-53.

MONTOYA, MERARI AND JUAN GABINO GONZÁLEZ

“Evolution of return migration in Mexico: migrants from the United States in 1995 and from 1999 to 2014”, in Population Papers, Vol. 21, N° 85, pp. 47-78.

NOVARO, GABRIELA, MARÍA LAURA DIEZ AND LAURA VICTORIA MARTÍNEZ

“Education and Latin American migration. Interculturality, rights and new forms of school inclusion and exclusion”, in International Migrations, Vol. 1, N° 2, pp. 7-23.

NOVARO, GABRIELA AND MARÍA LAURA DIEZ

“Education and migration in Argentina: family expectations, school mandates and children's voices”, in Education, indigenous people and migrants. Reflections from Mexico, Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina and Spain, Gabriela Novaro, Ana Padawer and Carolinia Hecht, eds., Biblos, Buenos Aires, pp. 311- 340.

NOVARO, GABRIELA AND MARÍA LAURA DIEZ

"A silent inclusion or the subtle forms of discrimination? Reflections about the schooling of Bolivian children”, in Ethnic and national discriminations: a participatory diagnosis, Corina Courtis y María Inés Pacecca, eds., Editores del Puerto and ADC, Buenos Aires, pp. 37-54.

NOVARO, GABRIELA

“Indigenous and immigrant children and adolescents in the Argentine school context. Kelly Rouso interview with Gabriela Novaro”, in Desidades, Vol. 4, N° 11, pp. 62-71.

NOVARO, GABRIELA

“Families, associations and schools: tensions in the national identifications of migrant children” in Linhas Críticas, Vol. 21, N° 44, pp. 77-93.

OCAMPO, LUIS

“Return migration, transnational families and educational demands”, in Society & Equity, N° 6, pp. 34-57.

OLMEDO, FRANCISCO JAVIER

“Culture and performance of students in the second cycle of Pre-primary in a multicultural context”. PhD diss., University of Granada. Available at https://bit.ly/2memjGW

PÀMIES, JORDI

“Academic success, immigration and citizenship. Conditions and possibilities among young people of Moroccan origin in Catalonia”, Paper presented at the First International Congress on Migration in Andalusia, Granada, February, 16-18.

POLITICAL CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.

Last reform published on August 27, 2018. https://bit.ly/2rIEQJO.

PORTES, ALEJANDRO AND RUBÉN RUMBAUT

Legacies: the story of the immigrant second generation, University of California Press, Berkeley.

SANTOS GUERRA, MIGUEL ÁNGEL

“The value of coexistence and the challenge of interculturality” in Eikasia, N° 28, pp. 175-200.

SINISI, LILIANA

“Contributions of ethnography for the study of networks and psycho-educational topics” In History and daily life in education. Interdisciplinary perspectives, Nora Elichiry, ed., Buenos Aires, Manantial, pp. 49-66.

SINISI, LILIANA

“School integration or inclusion: a paradigm shift?” in Anthropology and Education Bulletin, N° 1, pp. 11-14.

TOMASEVSKI, KATARINA

The assault on education, Intermon Oxfam, Barcelona.

TORRES DEL CASTILLO, ROSA MARÍA

“Right to education. It is much more than access of children to school”. Ciutat.edu Symposium: New challenges, new commitments, Diputación de Barcelona, Barcelona.

VALDÉZ, GLORIA, LIZA FABIOLA RUIZ, OSCAR BERNARDO RIVERA ET AL.

“Migrant minors of return: Academic problems and administrative process in the Sonoran school system” in Region and Society N° 30, Vol. 72, pp. 1-29.

VELASCO, HONORIO AND ÁNGEL DÍAZ

The logic of ethnographic research. A working model for school ethnographers. Trotta, Madrid.

ZÚÑIGA, VÍCTOR, EDMUND T. HAMANN, AND JUAN SÁNCHEZ

Transnational students. Mexican schools against globalization, SEP, México

ZÚÑIGA, VICTOR AND EDMUND T. HAMANN

“Going home? Schooling in Mexico of transnational children”, Confines N° 2, Vol. 4, pp. 41-57.

ZÚÑIGA, VÍCTOR

“International migrants in Mexican schools: current and future educational policy challenges”, Sinéctica, N° 40, pp. 1-12.

Published
2019-12-30
How to Cite
Rodríguez-Cruz, M. (2019). American students in Mexican schools: gaps and challenges for inclusion. Ethnographic contributions from Oaxaca, Mexico. Norteamérica, Revista Académica Del CISAN-UNAM, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2020.1.390
Section
DOSSIER